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"Boys are more likely to be enrolled in madrassas compared to girls. The census reports that there are only 43 females enrolled in madrassas for every 100 males. This imbalance is significantly greater than the 68 females for every 100 enrolled males in overall education. For both boys and girls, madrassa enrollment starts at the same age between 5 and 9 years, but girls' enrollment drops off sharply while boys' enrollment jumps for children between 10 and 14, and then tapers off in the mid-twenties."....






Religious School Enrollment in Pakistan: A Look at the Data

By Tahir Andrabi, Jishnu Das, Asim Ijaz Khwaja and Tristan Zajonc
Working Paper Number:RWP05-024
Submitted: 03/03/2005

Bold assertions have been made in policy reports and popular articles on the high and increasing enrollment in Pakistani religious schools, commonly known as madrassas. Given the importance placed on the subject by policy makers in Pakistan and those internationally, it is troubling that none of the reports and articles reviewed based their analysis on publicly available data or established statistical methodologies. This paper uses published data sources and a census of schooling choice to show that existing estimates are inflated by an order of magnitude. Madrassas account for less than 1 percent of all enrollment in the country and there is no evidence of a dramatic increase in recent years. The educational landscape in Pakistan has changed substantially in the last decade, but this is due to an explosion of private schools, an important fact that has been left out of the debate on Pakistani education. Moreover, when we look at school choice, we find that no one explanation fits the data. While most existing theories of madrassa enrollment are based on household attributes (for instance, a preference for religious schooling or the household’s access to other schooling options) the data show that among households with at least one child enrolled in a madrassa, 75 percent send their second (and/or third) child to a public or private school or both. Widely promoted theories simply do not explain this substantial variation within households.

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