PAKISTAN - GENDER GAP INDEX Report 2007
Literacy Rate Female 36% Male 63%
Enrolment in Primary Education Female 59% Male 77%
Enrolment in Secondary Education Female 18% Male 24%
Enrolment in Tertiary Education Female 4% Male 5%
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Excerpts relating to Equity in Education and Gender and Education:
A WHITE PAPER
DOCUMENT TO DEBATE AND FINALIZE THE
NATIONAL EDUCATION POLICY
JAVED HASAN ALY
NATIONAL EDUCATION POLICY REVIEW TEAM
White Paper is intended to stimulate discussion of major policy issues concerning
Education Sector in
7.1 Definition, Scope and Context
The concept of equity goes beyond equality of opportunity, where everyone is treated the same, to fostering a bias-free environment where individuals benefit equally. It recognizes that some people require additional and specialized support in order to achieve equal benefits. Equity in education, therefore, would take into consideration not only equal access to education of a particular standard, but the contents of curriculum, instructional and evaluation materials and practices, different ways of learning and views of knowledge, and everyone having the opportunity to achieve.
According to the Convention Against Discrimination in Education adapted by UNESCO in 1960, any distinction, exclusion, limitation or preference which, being based on race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, economic condition or birth, as the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing equality of treatment in education is tantamount to discrimination. This refers to all types and levels of education and includes access to education, the standard and quality of education, and the conditions under which it is given.
The Convention against
Discrimination in Education has not been ratified by
We need to look at both equality and equity in public and private education, focusing on institutions and students. It is our purpose to address issues of gender, economic and geographic disparities, parallel systems of education and medium of instruction, especially teaching of the English language.
7.2 Gender and Education:
The educational status of women in
Bachelorís degree and 1.4% achieved a Masterís degree. 60% of the female adult population is illiterate. Of the 3.3 million out of school children, 2.503 million are girls. 73.6% of primary age girls attend school, compared with 92.1% of boys. Moreover, a sizeable majority of rural girls drop out of primary schools.
Although education has
been seen to add value to a female worker, increase her productivity and make
her less vulnerable to violence or harassment, it is often the economic
productivity and security that are given as reasons that are used to hold girls
back from schooling. Poor families allocate scarce resources to their sonsí
education, expecting higher economic returns. Cultural limitations discourage
parents from sending their daughters to mixed gender schools. However, the
problem is not just of demand. There have been situations where girls are
enrolled in boysí schools even upto matric level, indicating that supply of
quality girls schooling is falling short. Similarly poor physical environment
or lack of basic facilities in schools also discourages parents from sending
their girls to schools. To remove these supply side blockages, unwavering
support and coordination between all stakeholders (politicians, bureaucrats,
government departments, planners, implementers and community organizations) is
required. Right from 1947 till 1998 the emphasis on girls education finds due
articulations in the policy documents but the physical targets were not matched
with financial and social investment in the cause of female education and hence
the appalling state in which the underprivileged women of
7.3 Policy Recommendations:
1. Compulsory and free primary education of girls by 2010; free secondary education with progressive targets setting by 2020.
2. Hiring of teachers and teachers training should be oriented towards reducing gender gaps.
3. Additional resources for provinces with wider gender gaps.
4. Continuous linkages between federal, provincial Education Departments and research organizations for gender disaggregated data and analysis so it can inform policy inputs.
5. Establish realistic and attainable specific goals.
6. Set up more powerful gender groups in the Ministry of Education.
7. Have committed fund allocations and human resources to implement and monitor progress towards goals and introduce a monitoring checklist. Greater emphasis should be placed on vocational training and technical education for women.
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